Metabolism of glycerol, glucose, and lactate in the citric acid cycle prior to incorporation into hepatic acylglycerols

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Abstract

During hepatic lipogenesis, the glycerol backbone of acylglycerols originates from one of three sources: glucose, glycerol, or substrates passing through the citric acid cycle via glyceroneogenesis. The relative contribution of each substrate source to glycerol in rat liver acylglycerols was determined using 13C-enriched substrates and NMR. Animals received a fixed mixture of glucose, glycerol, and lactate; one group received [U- 13C6]glucose, another received [U-13C 3]glycerol, and the third received [U-13C 3]lactate. After 3 h, the livers were harvested to extract fats, and the glycerol moiety from hydrolyzed acylglycerols was analyzed by 13C NMR. In either fed or fasted animals, glucose and glycerol provided the majority of the glycerol backbone carbons, whereas the contribution of lactate was small. In fed animals, glucose contributed >50% of the total newly synthesized glycerol backbone, and 35% of this contribution occurred after glucose had passed through the citric acid cycle. By comparison, the glycerol contribution was ∼40%, and of this, 17% of the exogenous glycerol passed first through the cycle. In fasted animals, exogenous glycerol became the major contributor to acylglycerols. The contribution from exogenous lactate did increase in fasted animals, but its overall contribution remained small. The contributions of glucose and glycerol that had passed through the citric acid cycle first increased in fasted animals from 35 to 71% for glucose and from 17 to 24% for glycerol. Thus, a substantial fraction from both substrate sources passed through the cycle prior to incorporation into the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols in the liver.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14488-14496
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume288
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - May 17 2013

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Glycerides
Citric Acid Cycle
Metabolism
Glycerol
Lactic Acid
Glucose
Liver
Animals
Substrates
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Lipogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

@article{2056635f827f4867a0d374e819db425e,
title = "Metabolism of glycerol, glucose, and lactate in the citric acid cycle prior to incorporation into hepatic acylglycerols",
abstract = "During hepatic lipogenesis, the glycerol backbone of acylglycerols originates from one of three sources: glucose, glycerol, or substrates passing through the citric acid cycle via glyceroneogenesis. The relative contribution of each substrate source to glycerol in rat liver acylglycerols was determined using 13C-enriched substrates and NMR. Animals received a fixed mixture of glucose, glycerol, and lactate; one group received [U- 13C6]glucose, another received [U-13C 3]glycerol, and the third received [U-13C 3]lactate. After 3 h, the livers were harvested to extract fats, and the glycerol moiety from hydrolyzed acylglycerols was analyzed by 13C NMR. In either fed or fasted animals, glucose and glycerol provided the majority of the glycerol backbone carbons, whereas the contribution of lactate was small. In fed animals, glucose contributed >50{\%} of the total newly synthesized glycerol backbone, and 35{\%} of this contribution occurred after glucose had passed through the citric acid cycle. By comparison, the glycerol contribution was ∼40{\%}, and of this, 17{\%} of the exogenous glycerol passed first through the cycle. In fasted animals, exogenous glycerol became the major contributor to acylglycerols. The contribution from exogenous lactate did increase in fasted animals, but its overall contribution remained small. The contributions of glucose and glycerol that had passed through the citric acid cycle first increased in fasted animals from 35 to 71{\%} for glucose and from 17 to 24{\%} for glycerol. Thus, a substantial fraction from both substrate sources passed through the cycle prior to incorporation into the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols in the liver.",
author = "Jin, {Eunsook S.} and Sherry, {A. Dean} and Malloy, {Craig R.}",
year = "2013",
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T1 - Metabolism of glycerol, glucose, and lactate in the citric acid cycle prior to incorporation into hepatic acylglycerols

AU - Jin, Eunsook S.

AU - Sherry, A. Dean

AU - Malloy, Craig R.

PY - 2013/5/17

Y1 - 2013/5/17

N2 - During hepatic lipogenesis, the glycerol backbone of acylglycerols originates from one of three sources: glucose, glycerol, or substrates passing through the citric acid cycle via glyceroneogenesis. The relative contribution of each substrate source to glycerol in rat liver acylglycerols was determined using 13C-enriched substrates and NMR. Animals received a fixed mixture of glucose, glycerol, and lactate; one group received [U- 13C6]glucose, another received [U-13C 3]glycerol, and the third received [U-13C 3]lactate. After 3 h, the livers were harvested to extract fats, and the glycerol moiety from hydrolyzed acylglycerols was analyzed by 13C NMR. In either fed or fasted animals, glucose and glycerol provided the majority of the glycerol backbone carbons, whereas the contribution of lactate was small. In fed animals, glucose contributed >50% of the total newly synthesized glycerol backbone, and 35% of this contribution occurred after glucose had passed through the citric acid cycle. By comparison, the glycerol contribution was ∼40%, and of this, 17% of the exogenous glycerol passed first through the cycle. In fasted animals, exogenous glycerol became the major contributor to acylglycerols. The contribution from exogenous lactate did increase in fasted animals, but its overall contribution remained small. The contributions of glucose and glycerol that had passed through the citric acid cycle first increased in fasted animals from 35 to 71% for glucose and from 17 to 24% for glycerol. Thus, a substantial fraction from both substrate sources passed through the cycle prior to incorporation into the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols in the liver.

AB - During hepatic lipogenesis, the glycerol backbone of acylglycerols originates from one of three sources: glucose, glycerol, or substrates passing through the citric acid cycle via glyceroneogenesis. The relative contribution of each substrate source to glycerol in rat liver acylglycerols was determined using 13C-enriched substrates and NMR. Animals received a fixed mixture of glucose, glycerol, and lactate; one group received [U- 13C6]glucose, another received [U-13C 3]glycerol, and the third received [U-13C 3]lactate. After 3 h, the livers were harvested to extract fats, and the glycerol moiety from hydrolyzed acylglycerols was analyzed by 13C NMR. In either fed or fasted animals, glucose and glycerol provided the majority of the glycerol backbone carbons, whereas the contribution of lactate was small. In fed animals, glucose contributed >50% of the total newly synthesized glycerol backbone, and 35% of this contribution occurred after glucose had passed through the citric acid cycle. By comparison, the glycerol contribution was ∼40%, and of this, 17% of the exogenous glycerol passed first through the cycle. In fasted animals, exogenous glycerol became the major contributor to acylglycerols. The contribution from exogenous lactate did increase in fasted animals, but its overall contribution remained small. The contributions of glucose and glycerol that had passed through the citric acid cycle first increased in fasted animals from 35 to 71% for glucose and from 17 to 24% for glycerol. Thus, a substantial fraction from both substrate sources passed through the cycle prior to incorporation into the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols in the liver.

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