Metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: recent advances in prognosis and management

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Purpose of reviewMetastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors with variable prognosis. This review highlights recent studies on outcomes and management of patients with metastatic PPGL.Recent findingsLatest advances were made in identifying predictors of favorable outcomes of patients with metastatic PPGL. Recent studies evaluated the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, high-specific-activity radiopharmaceuticals, and peptide receptors radionuclide therapy in treatment of metastatic disease. Moreover, ongoing studies are assessing the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 2αα and heat shock protein 90 inhibitors as potential therapies.SummarySeveral active studies are evaluating the efficacy of systemic chemo, immuno, radiopharmaceutical, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapies to relieve local and adrenergic symptoms and provide survival benefit for patients with symptomatic and/or progressive advanced metastatic PPGL. Owing to rarity and wide-outcome variability, multidisciplinary team effort and personalized approach are central in caring for patients with metastatic PPGL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-154
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • catecholamine-related symptoms
  • local control
  • peptide receptor radionuclide therapy
  • radiopharmaceutical therapy
  • survival outcomes
  • tyrosine kinase inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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