A method for conformal prostate thermal therapy using transurethral ultrasound heating applicators incorporating planar transducers is described. The capability to shape heating patterns to the geometry of the prostate gland from a single element in a multi-element heating applicator was evaluated using Bioheat transfer modelling. Eleven prostate geometries were obtained from patients who underwent MR imaging of the prostate gland prior to radical prostatectomy. Results indicate that ultrasound heating applicators incorporating multi-frequency planar transducers (4 x 20 mm, f = 4.7 MHz, 9.7 MHz) are capable of shaping thermal damage patterns to the geometry of individual prostates. A temperature feedback control algorithm has been developed to control the frequency, rotation rate and applied power level from transurethral heating applicators based on measurements of the boundary temperature during heating. The discrepancy between the thermal damage boundary and the target boundary was less than 5 mm, and the transition distance between coagulation and normal tissue was less than 1 cm. Treatment times for large prostate volumes were less than 50 min, and perfusion did not have significant impact on the control algorithm. Rectal cooling will play an important role in reducing undesired heating near the rectal wall. Experimental validation of the simulations in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and generated patterns of thermal damage.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology