Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse correlation between dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables and cancer risk. It is thus of interest to investigate the anticancer potential of phytochemicals presented in cruciferous vegetables. In this study, methyl-3-indolylacetate (MIA), a cruciferous indole for which the bioactivity has not been previously reported, was found to significantly suppress the invasion of cancer cells stimulated by the 12-O-tetradecanoyi-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Our data show that MIA pretreatments inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in decreased MMP-9 activity. By using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, luciferase reporter gene assay, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we provided convincing evidence that MIA suppresses MMP-9 gene transcription via targeting the activator protein-1 signaling but not the nuclear factor-κB pathway. The TPA-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation cascade was also analyzed. Despite extensive activation of major MAPKs [c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2)] under TPA stimulation, only the ERK1/2 activation and its consequent nuclear translocation were found to be diminished by MIA. Interestingly, MIA did not affect the TPA-induced phosphorylation of either c-Raf or MAPK/ERK kinase-1/2 (MEK1/2), two upstream kinases of ERK. Moreover, using the in vitro kinase assay, MIA was shown to inhibit the kinase activity of MEK 1/2, the upstream kinases of ERK, suggesting that MEK is the major molecular target of MIA. In conclusion, data from this study provided new insight into the anti-cancer potential of MIA, a cruciferous vegetable-derived indole compound.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research