Systemic immune activation is increased in HIV-infected individuals, even in the setting of virus suppression with antiretroviral therapy. Although numerous factors may contribute, microbial products have recently emerged as potential drivers of this immune activation. In this Review, we describe the intestinal damage that occurs in HIV infection, the evidence for translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the pathways by which these products activate the immune system. We also discuss novel therapies that disrupt the translocation of microbial products and the downstream effects of microbial translocation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Infectious Diseases