Enteric viruses are important human pathogens that pose a significant global health problem. These viruses infect the gastrointestinal tract, which contains a community of microbes called the ‘microbiota’. We and others have shown that intestinal microbiota are crucial for the replication, pathogenesis, and transmission of a variety of enteric viruses. However, the mechanisms underlying microbiota enhancement of enteric virus infection remain unclear. Interestingly, the host immune system is dependent on both the abundance and composition of the intestinal microbiota. Here we review several aspects of how microbiota influence the immune system and how this could potentially impact enteric virus infection.
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