Coxsackieviruses primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, but they can disseminate systemically and cause severe disease. Using antibiotic treatment regimens to deplete intestinal microbes in mice, several groups have shown that bacteria promote oral infection with a variety of enteric viruses. However, it is unknown whether antibiotics have microbiota-independent antiviral effects for enteric viruses or whether antibiotics influence extra-intestinal, systemic infection. Here, we examined the effects of antibiotics on systemic enteric virus infection by performing intraperitoneal injections of either coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) or poliovirus followed by quantification of viral titers. We found that antibiotic treatment reduced systemic infection for both viruses. Interestingly, antibiotics reduced CVB3 titers in germ-free mice, suggesting that antibiotic treatment alters CVB3 infection through a microbiota-independent mechanism. Overall, these data provide further evidence that antibiotics can have noncanonical effects on viral infection.
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