Minimal/Measurable Residual Disease Detection in Acute Leukemias by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry

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Abstract

Purpose of Review: Minimal or measurable residual disease (MRD) detected by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is an independent prognostic indicator in acute leukemia. However, the predictive value of MFC MRD is affected by technical challenges, interpretive complexities, and inadequate standardization, particularly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we critically review the methodological principles of the MFC MRD assay and discuss clinical implications of MRD. Recent Findings: Key components of MFC MRD assays to be discussed include the principles of MFC, panel selection, analysis approaches, level of quantifiable MRD and calculation, reporting, and areas of improvements. Key components of clinical implications include context-dependent detection threshold and the integral role of MRD assessment by MFC in the era of ever-expanding molecular testing. Summary: With advancements in technology and standardization, MFC along with molecular assays will continue to play an important role in MRD assessment to evaluate treatment response and risk stratification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCurrent Hematologic Malignancy Reports
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Residual Neoplasm
Flow Cytometry
Leukemia
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Technology

Keywords

  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Immunophenotype
  • Lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Measurable residual disease detection
  • Minimal residual disease detection
  • Multiparameter flow cytometry
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

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title = "Minimal/Measurable Residual Disease Detection in Acute Leukemias by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry",
abstract = "Purpose of Review: Minimal or measurable residual disease (MRD) detected by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is an independent prognostic indicator in acute leukemia. However, the predictive value of MFC MRD is affected by technical challenges, interpretive complexities, and inadequate standardization, particularly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we critically review the methodological principles of the MFC MRD assay and discuss clinical implications of MRD. Recent Findings: Key components of MFC MRD assays to be discussed include the principles of MFC, panel selection, analysis approaches, level of quantifiable MRD and calculation, reporting, and areas of improvements. Key components of clinical implications include context-dependent detection threshold and the integral role of MRD assessment by MFC in the era of ever-expanding molecular testing. Summary: With advancements in technology and standardization, MFC along with molecular assays will continue to play an important role in MRD assessment to evaluate treatment response and risk stratification.",
keywords = "Acute myeloid leukemia, Immunophenotype, Lymphoblastic leukemia, Measurable residual disease detection, Minimal residual disease detection, Multiparameter flow cytometry, Next-generation sequencing, Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction",
author = "Fuda, {Franklin S} and Weina Chen",
year = "2018",
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N2 - Purpose of Review: Minimal or measurable residual disease (MRD) detected by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is an independent prognostic indicator in acute leukemia. However, the predictive value of MFC MRD is affected by technical challenges, interpretive complexities, and inadequate standardization, particularly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we critically review the methodological principles of the MFC MRD assay and discuss clinical implications of MRD. Recent Findings: Key components of MFC MRD assays to be discussed include the principles of MFC, panel selection, analysis approaches, level of quantifiable MRD and calculation, reporting, and areas of improvements. Key components of clinical implications include context-dependent detection threshold and the integral role of MRD assessment by MFC in the era of ever-expanding molecular testing. Summary: With advancements in technology and standardization, MFC along with molecular assays will continue to play an important role in MRD assessment to evaluate treatment response and risk stratification.

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KW - Acute myeloid leukemia

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