Insulin signaling regulates many facets of animal physiology. Its dysregulation causes diabetes and other metabolic disorders. The spindle checkpoint proteins MAD2 and BUBR1 prevent precocious chromosome segregation and suppress aneuploidy. The MAD2 inhibitory protein p31comet promotes checkpoint inactivation and timely chromosome segregation. Here, we show that whole-body p31comet knockout mice die soon after birth and have reduced hepatic glycogen. Liver-specific ablation of p31comet causes insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia and diminishes the plasma membrane localization of the insulin receptor (IR) in hepatocytes. MAD2 directly binds to IR and facilitates BUBR1-dependent recruitment of the clathrin adaptor AP2 to IR. p31comet blocks the MAD2-BUBR1 interaction and prevents spontaneous clathrin-mediated IR endocytosis. BUBR1 deficiency enhances insulin sensitivity in mice. BUBR1 depletion in hepatocytes or the expression of MAD2-binding-deficient IR suppresses the metabolic phenotypes of p31comet ablation. Our findings establish a major IR regulatory mechanism and link guardians of chromosome stability to nutrient metabolism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)