PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are predictive of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. However, the use of medication to raise HDL-C levels has not consistently shown clinical benefit. As a result, studies have shifted toward HDL function, specifically cholesterol efflux, which has been inversely associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis as well as subsequent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. The purpose of this review is to summarize the effects of current medications and interventions on cholesterol efflux capacity. RECENT FINDINGS: Medications for cardiovascular health, including statins, fibrates, niacin, and novel therapeutics, are reviewed for their effect on cholesterol efflux. Differences in population studied and assay used are addressed appropriately. Lifestyle interventions, including diet and exercise, are also included in the review. SUMMARY: The modification of cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) by current medications and interventions has been investigated in both large randomized control trials and smaller observational cohorts. This review serves to compile the results of these studies and evaluate CEC modulation by commonly used medications. Altering CEC could be a novel therapeutic approach to improving cardiovascular risk profiles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology
- Molecular Biology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics