Molecular and cellular aspects of calcific aortic valve disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

85 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) increasingly afflicts our aging population. One third of our elderly have echocardiographic or radiological evidence of calcific aortic valve sclerosis, an early and subclinical form of CAVD. Age, sex, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and type II diabetes mellitus all contribute to the risk of disease that has worldwide distribution. On progression to its most severe form, calcific aortic stenosis, CAVD becomes debilitating and devastating, and 2% of individuals >60 years are affected by calcific aortic stenosis to the extent that surgical intervention is required. No effective pharmacotherapies exist for treating those at risk for clinical progression. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a diverse spectrum of cellular and molecular mechanisms converge to regulate valvular calcium load; this is evidenced not only in histopathologic heterogeneity of CAVD, but also from the multiplicity of cell types that can participate in valve biomineralization. In this review, we highlight our current understanding of CAVD disease biology, emphasizing molecular and cellular aspects of its regulation. We end by pointing to important biological and clinical questions that must be answered to enable sophisticated disease staging and the development of new strategies to treat CAVD medically.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)198-208
Number of pages11
JournalCirculation Research
Volume113
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 5 2013

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Aortic Diseases
Aortic Valve
Tobacco Use
Sclerosis
Hypercholesterolemia
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology
Hypertension
Calcium
Drug Therapy
Population

Keywords

  • aortic valve
  • calcification of
  • vascular calcification
  • vascular senescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Molecular and cellular aspects of calcific aortic valve disease. / Towler, Dwight A.

In: Circulation Research, Vol. 113, No. 2, 05.07.2013, p. 198-208.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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