The expression of tissue factor (TF) by monocytes that have transmigrated across the endothelium to sites of extravascular inflammation acts both to focus and amplify the inflammatory response. Because clustering of the integrins responsible for endothelial adhesion and transmigration induces tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, we postulated that transmigration might lead to monocyte activation and TF production. Monocytes were migrated across TNFα-primed ECV304 cells grown on fibronectin-coated Transwell chambers in response to FMLP (10-8 M). After transmigration, monocytes showed a time-dependent increase in surface TF expression and biological procoagulant activity. TF expression was dependent on monocyte adhesion to ECV304 cells. Specifically, TF was not induced by FMLP treatment of suspended monocytes, by migration across fibronectin alone, or by soluble factors induced during migration, whereas monocyte-ECV304 adhesion was sufficient to stimulate TF. Antibodies against CD29 (β1 integrin), but not against CD18 (β2 integrin) or CD31 (PECAM-1), inhibited TF expression. Monocyte adhesion to ECV304 cells induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and specifically of the ERK and p38 MAP kinases. Tyrosine kinase inhibition with genistein (10 μg/mL) blocked transmigration, whereas selective ERK inhibition with PD98059 (50 μM) or p38 inhibition with SB203580 (20 μM) did not. However, both ERK and p38 inhibition dose dependently abolished TF expression. These studies suggest that an extravascular focus of infection or inflammation can promote both intravascular thrombosis and extravascular fibrin deposition during the process of adhesion and transmigration across the endothelial barrier. The selective inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinases may offer a novel therapeutic means of modulating this inflammatory sequence.
- Procoagulant activity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine