Objective: Derive and confirm factor structure of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and evaluate how the factors evident at baseline change over 4 weeks of esketamine treatment. Methods: Two similarly-designed, short-term TRANSFORM trials randomized adults to esketamine or matching placebo nasal spray, each with a newly-initiated oral antidepressant, for 4 weeks (TRANSFORM-1: N = 342 patients; TRANSFORM-2: N = 223 patients). The factor structure of MADRS item scores at baseline was determined by exploratory factor analysis in TRANSFORM-2 and corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis in TRANSFORM-1. Change in MADRS factor scores from baseline (day 1) to the end of the 28-day double-blind treatment phase of TRANSFORM-2 was analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM). Results: Three factors were identified based on analysis of MADRS items: Factor 1 labeled affective and anhedonic symptoms (apparent sadness, reported sadness, lassitude, inability to feel), Factor 2 labeled anxiety and vegetative symptoms (inner tension, reduced sleep, reduced appetite, concentration difficulties), and Factor 3 labeled hopelessness (pessimistic thoughts, suicidal thoughts). The three-factor structure observed in TRANSFORM-2 was verified in TRANSFORM-1. Treatment benefit at 24 h with esketamine versus placebo was observed on all 3 factors and continued throughout the 4-week double-blind treatment period. Conclusions: A three-factor structure for MADRS appears to generalize to TRD. All three factors improved over 4 weeks of treatment with esketamine nasal spray.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2022|
- factor analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health