Movement disorder emergencies of the aerodigestive tract are dramatic and often life threatening. With appropriate timely evaluation and intervention, most patients can be effectively managed and major morbidity avoided. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of both the causes and appropriate treatment of breathing disturbances secondary to primary disorders and iatrogenic causes, as well as swallowing emergencies. Additionally, basic physiology, anatomy, and various methods for assessment of the upper aerodigestive tract are reviewed. Specific disorders that are addressed include the following: spasmodic dysphonia, adductor laryngeal breathing dystonia, Shy–Drager abductor weakness, drug-induced tardive dystonia, oromandibulolingual dystonia, multiple system atrophy, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and palatal myoclonus.