Purpose: To estimate the accuracy of predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer using MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements made very early in treatment. Materials and Methods: This prospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)–compliant protocol was approved by the American College of Radiology and local-site institutional review boards. One hundred nineteen women with invasive breast cancer of ≥3 cm undergoing NACT were enrolled between September 2007 and April 2010. MRS measurements of the concentration of choline-containing compounds ([tCho]) were performed before the first chemotherapy regimen (time point 1, TP1) and 20–96 h after the first cycle of treatment (TP2). The change in [tCho] was assessed for its ability to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) and radiologic response using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and logistic regression models. Results: Of the 119 subjects enrolled, only 29 cases (24%) with eight pCRs provided usable data for the primary analysis. Technical challenges in acquiring quantitative MRS data in a multi-site trial setting limited the capture of usable data. In this limited data set, the decrease in tCho from TP1 to TP2 had poor ability to predict either pCR (AUC = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27–0.79) or radiologic response (AUC = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27–0.75). Conclusion: The technical difficulty of acquiring quantitative MRS data in a multi-site clinical trial setting led to a low yield of analyzable data, which was insufficient to accurately measure the ability of early MRS measurements to predict response to NACT. Level of Evidence: 1. Technical Efficacy: Stage 2. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:290–302.
- breast cancer
- magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- treatment response
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging