Background: Mucormycosis is a rare presentation for patients in the emergency department (ED), primarily affecting immunocompromised patients. Multiple forms of infection are present, and with poor prognosis, ED diagnosis and treatment of this deadly condition are necessary. Objective of review: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the presentations and forms of mucormycosis, diagnosis, and treatment of this deadly disease. Discussion: This review provides background on the fungi causing mucormycosis, which are prevalent in nature. The article discusses the risk factors for infection with mucormycosis, as normal hosts are able to clear the disease, but immunocompromised and diabetic patients are at risk for organism inoculation and spread. The fungi are angioinvasive and cause necrosis. This article describes the various forms of the disease: rhino-orbital-cerebral, pulmonary, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, renal, disseminated, and cutaneous. Finally, this review evaluates diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Conclusion: Emergency department diagnosis and treatment are necessary in patients with infection with mucormycosis. Physicians should be suspicious of this disease in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Treatment requires antifungal agents such as amphotericin B and surgical debridement. Prognosis is poor.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine