Purpose: Motexafin gadolinium is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detectable redox active drug that localizes selectively in tumor cells and enhances the effect of radiation therapy. This phase lb/II trial of motexafin gadolinium, administered concurrently with 30 Gy in 10 fractions whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), was conducted to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and biolocalization in patients with brain metastases. Additional endpoints were radiologic response rate and survival. Patients and Methods: Motexafin gadolinium was administered before each radiation treatment in this open-label, multicenter, international trial. In phase lb, drug dose was escalated until the MTD was exceeded. In phase II, drug was evaluated in a narrow dose range. Results: In phase lb, the motexafin gadolinium dose was escalated in 39 patients (0.3 mg/kg to 8.4 mg/kg). In phase II, 22 patients received 5 mg/kg to 6.3 mg/kg motexafin gadolinium. Ten once-daily treatments were well tolerated. The MTD was 6.3 mg/kg, with dose-limiting reversible liver toxicity. Motexafin gadolinium's tumor selectivity was established using MRI. The radiologic response rate was 72% in phase II. Median survival was 4.7 months for all patients, 5.4 months for recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 2 patients, and 3.8 months for RPA class 3 patients. One-year actuarial survival for all patients was 25%. Conclusion: Motexafin gadolinium was well tolerated at doses up to 6.3 mg/kg, was selectively accumulated in tumors, and, when combined with WBRT of 30 Gy in 10 fractions, was associated with a high radiologic response rate.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research