Background: The effectiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is mitigated by underuse in clinical practice, highlighting a need for interventions. We evaluated the effectiveness of mailed HCC surveillance outreach to promote HCC surveillance in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: We conducted a multicenter pragmatic randomized clinical trial comparing mailed outreach for surveillance ultrasound (n = 1436) and usual care with visit-based surveillance (n = 1436) among patients with cirrhosis at 3 health systems (tertiary care referral center, safety net health system, and Veterans Affairs medical center) from April 2018 to December 2019. The primary outcome of this interim analysis was guideline concordant semiannual HCC surveillance over a 12-month period and a secondary outcome was proportion time covered by surveillance. All patients were included in intention-to-screen analyses. Results: Compared with usual care, the outreach arm had significantly higher semiannual surveillance (35.1% vs 21.9%) and lower no-surveillance (29.8% vs 43.5%) (P < .001), resulting in significant increases in the proportion of time covered by surveillance (41.3% vs 31.0%; P < .001). The intervention increased HCC surveillance across most predefined subgroups; however, there were site-level differences in the intervention effect, with significant increases in semiannual surveillance at the Veterans Affairs and safety net health systems but not at the tertiary care referral center. Conclusions: Mailed outreach significantly increased semiannual HCC surveillance vs usual care in patients with cirrhosis, with a consistent intervention effect across most examined subgroups. Continued follow-up is ongoing to determine if these increases in surveillance translate into improved downstream outcomes includi.ng early HCC detection and curative treatment receipt. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Numbers: NCT02582918 and NCT03756051).
- Liver Cancer
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