Multiple retinoid-responsive receptors in a single cell

Families of retinoid "X" receptors and retinoic acid receptors in the Xenopus egg

Bruce Blumberg, David J. Mangelsdorf, Jacqueline A. Dyck, Dennis A. Bittner, Ronald M. Evans, Eddy M. De Robertis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

131 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In a search for nuclear hormone receptors expressed in early development we found that Xenopus laevis eggs contain mRNAs from two retinoic acid receptor genes (xRARα and xRARγ) and two retinoid "X" receptor genes (xRXRα and xRXRγ). We also show that RXRs are members of a family of at least three genes, thus expanding the number of genes encoding retinoic acid-responsive transcription factors to six. With the exception of xRXRγ, these maternal mRNAs are degraded before gastrulation. The RXRs isolated are differentially activated by retinoic acid and by 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid. Considered together, these four receptors provide a molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of retinoic acid on early development, and their pattern of expression suggests a role for retinoic acid at the earliest stages of embryonic determination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2321-2325
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume89
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1992

Fingerprint

Retinoid X Receptors
Retinoic Acid Receptors
Retinoids
Xenopus
Tretinoin
Ovum
Genes
Stored Messenger RNA
Gastrulation
Xenopus laevis
Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors
Eggs
Transcription Factors
Messenger RNA

Keywords

  • Morphogen
  • Nuclear receptor
  • Transactivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General

Cite this

Multiple retinoid-responsive receptors in a single cell : Families of retinoid "X" receptors and retinoic acid receptors in the Xenopus egg. / Blumberg, Bruce; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Dyck, Jacqueline A.; Bittner, Dennis A.; Evans, Ronald M.; De Robertis, Eddy M.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 89, No. 6, 1992, p. 2321-2325.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Dyck, Jacqueline A.

AU - Bittner, Dennis A.

AU - Evans, Ronald M.

AU - De Robertis, Eddy M.

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AB - In a search for nuclear hormone receptors expressed in early development we found that Xenopus laevis eggs contain mRNAs from two retinoic acid receptor genes (xRARα and xRARγ) and two retinoid "X" receptor genes (xRXRα and xRXRγ). We also show that RXRs are members of a family of at least three genes, thus expanding the number of genes encoding retinoic acid-responsive transcription factors to six. With the exception of xRXRγ, these maternal mRNAs are degraded before gastrulation. The RXRs isolated are differentially activated by retinoic acid and by 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid. Considered together, these four receptors provide a molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of retinoic acid on early development, and their pattern of expression suggests a role for retinoic acid at the earliest stages of embryonic determination.

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