N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel

A randomized clinical trial

Lewis J. Radonovich, Michael S. Simberkoff, Mary T. Bessesen, Alexandria C. Brown, Derek A.T. Cummings, Charlotte A. Gaydos, Jenna G. Los, Amanda E. Krosche, Cynthia L. Gibert, Geoffrey J. Gorse, Ann Christine Nyquist, Nicholas G. Reich, Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas, Connie Savor Price, Trish Perl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Importance: Clinical studies have been inconclusive about the effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health care personnel (HCP) from acquiring workplace viral respiratory infections. Objective: To compare the effect of N95 respirators vs medical masks for prevention of influenza and other viral respiratory infections among HCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized pragmatic effectiveness study conducted at 137 outpatient study sites at 7 US medical centers between September 2011 and May 2015, with final follow-up in June 2016. Each year for 4 years, during the 12-week period of peak viral respiratory illness, pairs of outpatient sites (clusters) within each center were matched and randomly assigned to the N95 respirator or medical mask groups. Interventions: Overall, 1993 participants in 189 clusters were randomly assigned to wear N95 respirators (2512 HCP-seasons of observation) and 2058 in 191 clusters were randomly assigned to wear medical masks (2668 HCP-seasons) when near patients with respiratory illness. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Secondary outcomes included incidence of acute respiratory illness, laboratory-detected respiratory infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness, and influenzalike illness. Adherence to interventions was assessed. Results: Among 2862 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 43 [11.5] years; 2369 [82.8%]) women), 2371 completed the study and accounted for 5180 HCP-seasons. There were 207 laboratory-confirmed influenza infection events (8.2% of HCP-seasons) in the N95 respirator group and 193 (7.2% of HCP-seasons) in the medical mask group (difference, 1.0%, [95% CI, -0.5% to 2.5%]; P =.18) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.18 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]). There were 1556 acute respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 1711 in the mask group (difference, -21.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -48.2 to 4.4]; P =.10); 679 laboratory-detected respiratory infections in the respirator group vs 745 in the mask group (difference, -8.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons, [95% CI, -33.3 to 15.4]; P =.47); 371 laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 417 in the mask group (difference, -8.6 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -28.2 to 10.9]; P =.39); and 128 influenzalike illness events in the respirator group vs 166 in the mask group (difference, -11.3 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -23.8 to 1.3]; P =.08). In the respirator group, 89.4% of participants reported "always" or "sometimes" wearing their assigned devices vs 90.2% in the mask group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatient health care personnel, N95 respirators vs medical masks as worn by participants in this trial resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01249625.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)824-833
Number of pages10
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume322
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 3 2019

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Mechanical Ventilators
Masks
Health Personnel
Human Influenza
Randomized Controlled Trials
Delivery of Health Care
Respiratory Tract Infections
Virus Diseases
Incidence
Outpatients
Ambulatory Care
Workplace
Odds Ratio
Observation
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Equipment and Supplies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel : A randomized clinical trial. / Radonovich, Lewis J.; Simberkoff, Michael S.; Bessesen, Mary T.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Cummings, Derek A.T.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Los, Jenna G.; Krosche, Amanda E.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Gorse, Geoffrey J.; Nyquist, Ann Christine; Reich, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Price, Connie Savor; Perl, Trish.

In: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 322, No. 9, 03.09.2019, p. 824-833.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Radonovich, LJ, Simberkoff, MS, Bessesen, MT, Brown, AC, Cummings, DAT, Gaydos, CA, Los, JG, Krosche, AE, Gibert, CL, Gorse, GJ, Nyquist, AC, Reich, NG, Rodriguez-Barradas, MC, Price, CS & Perl, T 2019, 'N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel: A randomized clinical trial', JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 322, no. 9, pp. 824-833. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.11645
Radonovich, Lewis J. ; Simberkoff, Michael S. ; Bessesen, Mary T. ; Brown, Alexandria C. ; Cummings, Derek A.T. ; Gaydos, Charlotte A. ; Los, Jenna G. ; Krosche, Amanda E. ; Gibert, Cynthia L. ; Gorse, Geoffrey J. ; Nyquist, Ann Christine ; Reich, Nicholas G. ; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C. ; Price, Connie Savor ; Perl, Trish. / N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel : A randomized clinical trial. In: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 2019 ; Vol. 322, No. 9. pp. 824-833.
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abstract = "Importance: Clinical studies have been inconclusive about the effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health care personnel (HCP) from acquiring workplace viral respiratory infections. Objective: To compare the effect of N95 respirators vs medical masks for prevention of influenza and other viral respiratory infections among HCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized pragmatic effectiveness study conducted at 137 outpatient study sites at 7 US medical centers between September 2011 and May 2015, with final follow-up in June 2016. Each year for 4 years, during the 12-week period of peak viral respiratory illness, pairs of outpatient sites (clusters) within each center were matched and randomly assigned to the N95 respirator or medical mask groups. Interventions: Overall, 1993 participants in 189 clusters were randomly assigned to wear N95 respirators (2512 HCP-seasons of observation) and 2058 in 191 clusters were randomly assigned to wear medical masks (2668 HCP-seasons) when near patients with respiratory illness. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Secondary outcomes included incidence of acute respiratory illness, laboratory-detected respiratory infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness, and influenzalike illness. Adherence to interventions was assessed. Results: Among 2862 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 43 [11.5] years; 2369 [82.8{\%}]) women), 2371 completed the study and accounted for 5180 HCP-seasons. There were 207 laboratory-confirmed influenza infection events (8.2{\%} of HCP-seasons) in the N95 respirator group and 193 (7.2{\%} of HCP-seasons) in the medical mask group (difference, 1.0{\%}, [95{\%} CI, -0.5{\%} to 2.5{\%}]; P =.18) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.18 [95{\%} CI, 0.95-1.45]). There were 1556 acute respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 1711 in the mask group (difference, -21.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95{\%} CI, -48.2 to 4.4]; P =.10); 679 laboratory-detected respiratory infections in the respirator group vs 745 in the mask group (difference, -8.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons, [95{\%} CI, -33.3 to 15.4]; P =.47); 371 laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 417 in the mask group (difference, -8.6 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95{\%} CI, -28.2 to 10.9]; P =.39); and 128 influenzalike illness events in the respirator group vs 166 in the mask group (difference, -11.3 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95{\%} CI, -23.8 to 1.3]; P =.08). In the respirator group, 89.4{\%} of participants reported {"}always{"} or {"}sometimes{"} wearing their assigned devices vs 90.2{\%} in the mask group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatient health care personnel, N95 respirators vs medical masks as worn by participants in this trial resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01249625.",
author = "Radonovich, {Lewis J.} and Simberkoff, {Michael S.} and Bessesen, {Mary T.} and Brown, {Alexandria C.} and Cummings, {Derek A.T.} and Gaydos, {Charlotte A.} and Los, {Jenna G.} and Krosche, {Amanda E.} and Gibert, {Cynthia L.} and Gorse, {Geoffrey J.} and Nyquist, {Ann Christine} and Reich, {Nicholas G.} and Rodriguez-Barradas, {Maria C.} and Price, {Connie Savor} and Trish Perl",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel

T2 - A randomized clinical trial

AU - Radonovich, Lewis J.

AU - Simberkoff, Michael S.

AU - Bessesen, Mary T.

AU - Brown, Alexandria C.

AU - Cummings, Derek A.T.

AU - Gaydos, Charlotte A.

AU - Los, Jenna G.

AU - Krosche, Amanda E.

AU - Gibert, Cynthia L.

AU - Gorse, Geoffrey J.

AU - Nyquist, Ann Christine

AU - Reich, Nicholas G.

AU - Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.

AU - Price, Connie Savor

AU - Perl, Trish

PY - 2019/9/3

Y1 - 2019/9/3

N2 - Importance: Clinical studies have been inconclusive about the effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health care personnel (HCP) from acquiring workplace viral respiratory infections. Objective: To compare the effect of N95 respirators vs medical masks for prevention of influenza and other viral respiratory infections among HCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized pragmatic effectiveness study conducted at 137 outpatient study sites at 7 US medical centers between September 2011 and May 2015, with final follow-up in June 2016. Each year for 4 years, during the 12-week period of peak viral respiratory illness, pairs of outpatient sites (clusters) within each center were matched and randomly assigned to the N95 respirator or medical mask groups. Interventions: Overall, 1993 participants in 189 clusters were randomly assigned to wear N95 respirators (2512 HCP-seasons of observation) and 2058 in 191 clusters were randomly assigned to wear medical masks (2668 HCP-seasons) when near patients with respiratory illness. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Secondary outcomes included incidence of acute respiratory illness, laboratory-detected respiratory infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness, and influenzalike illness. Adherence to interventions was assessed. Results: Among 2862 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 43 [11.5] years; 2369 [82.8%]) women), 2371 completed the study and accounted for 5180 HCP-seasons. There were 207 laboratory-confirmed influenza infection events (8.2% of HCP-seasons) in the N95 respirator group and 193 (7.2% of HCP-seasons) in the medical mask group (difference, 1.0%, [95% CI, -0.5% to 2.5%]; P =.18) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.18 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]). There were 1556 acute respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 1711 in the mask group (difference, -21.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -48.2 to 4.4]; P =.10); 679 laboratory-detected respiratory infections in the respirator group vs 745 in the mask group (difference, -8.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons, [95% CI, -33.3 to 15.4]; P =.47); 371 laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 417 in the mask group (difference, -8.6 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -28.2 to 10.9]; P =.39); and 128 influenzalike illness events in the respirator group vs 166 in the mask group (difference, -11.3 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -23.8 to 1.3]; P =.08). In the respirator group, 89.4% of participants reported "always" or "sometimes" wearing their assigned devices vs 90.2% in the mask group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatient health care personnel, N95 respirators vs medical masks as worn by participants in this trial resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01249625.

AB - Importance: Clinical studies have been inconclusive about the effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health care personnel (HCP) from acquiring workplace viral respiratory infections. Objective: To compare the effect of N95 respirators vs medical masks for prevention of influenza and other viral respiratory infections among HCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized pragmatic effectiveness study conducted at 137 outpatient study sites at 7 US medical centers between September 2011 and May 2015, with final follow-up in June 2016. Each year for 4 years, during the 12-week period of peak viral respiratory illness, pairs of outpatient sites (clusters) within each center were matched and randomly assigned to the N95 respirator or medical mask groups. Interventions: Overall, 1993 participants in 189 clusters were randomly assigned to wear N95 respirators (2512 HCP-seasons of observation) and 2058 in 191 clusters were randomly assigned to wear medical masks (2668 HCP-seasons) when near patients with respiratory illness. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Secondary outcomes included incidence of acute respiratory illness, laboratory-detected respiratory infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness, and influenzalike illness. Adherence to interventions was assessed. Results: Among 2862 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 43 [11.5] years; 2369 [82.8%]) women), 2371 completed the study and accounted for 5180 HCP-seasons. There were 207 laboratory-confirmed influenza infection events (8.2% of HCP-seasons) in the N95 respirator group and 193 (7.2% of HCP-seasons) in the medical mask group (difference, 1.0%, [95% CI, -0.5% to 2.5%]; P =.18) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.18 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]). There were 1556 acute respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 1711 in the mask group (difference, -21.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -48.2 to 4.4]; P =.10); 679 laboratory-detected respiratory infections in the respirator group vs 745 in the mask group (difference, -8.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons, [95% CI, -33.3 to 15.4]; P =.47); 371 laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 417 in the mask group (difference, -8.6 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -28.2 to 10.9]; P =.39); and 128 influenzalike illness events in the respirator group vs 166 in the mask group (difference, -11.3 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -23.8 to 1.3]; P =.08). In the respirator group, 89.4% of participants reported "always" or "sometimes" wearing their assigned devices vs 90.2% in the mask group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatient health care personnel, N95 respirators vs medical masks as worn by participants in this trial resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01249625.

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