Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a disease seen exclusively in patients with decreased renal function. The use of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) has a strong association with NSF. Linear non-ionic GBCAs that are more prone to release free gadolinium are the more likely to cause NSF. The number of reported cases has increased recently, and there are currently nine pediatric cases, the patients ranging in age from 8 years to 19 years, and the oldest adult patient is 87 years of age. The most successful treatment is improvement of renal function with renal transplantation or with recovery of acute kidney injury. NSF can be severely debilitating and even fatal. Avoidance of a GBCA in patients at risk, or limitation of the dose in the patients who need gadolinium enhancement, is recommended.
- Contrast agents
- End-stage renal disease
- Kidney disease
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health