Background Progressive renal dysfunction develops in patients with advanced HF. We evaluated neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C compared with established markers of renal function in patients with heart failure (HF) because they might improve prognostic assessment of patients with HF. Methods Serum samples were collected from 40 patients with stable HF (age: 58 ± 8 years, body mass index [BMI]: 28.4 ± 6.4 kg/m2), 40 HF patients undergoing ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation (age: 53 ± 11 years, BMI: 26.8 ± 5.5 kg/m2), 40 patients undergoing VAD removal at cardiac transplantation, and 24 controls (age: 48 ± 7 years, BMI: 29.4 ± 4.2 kg/m2). Clinical data were collected from institutional medical records. NGAL and cystatin C levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Results Patients with stable HF showed elevated NGAL and cystatin C levels compared with controls (NGAL: 114.9 ± 48.3 ng/mL vs 72.0 ± 36.6 ng/mL, p < 0.0001; cystatin C: 1490.4 ± 576.1 ng/mL vs 954.7 ± 414.2 ng/mL, p = 0.0026). Unlike cystatin C, NGAL increased in advanced HF patients requiring VAD implantation (158.7 ± 74.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001). On VAD support, NGAL levels decreased (127.1 ± 80.4 ng/mL, p = 0.034). NGAL was higher in patients who developed right ventricular failure (187.8 ± 66.0 vs 130.9 ± 67.0 ng/mL, p = 0.03) and irreversible renal dysfunction (190.0 ± 73.8 ng/mL vs 133.8 ± 54.2 ng/mL, p < 0.05), whereas cystatin C, creatinine, and eGFR were not different. NGAL correlated with eGFR (r = -0.2188, p = 0.01). Conclusions NGAL levels correlate with HF severity and hemodynamic improvement after VAD placement. Our findings suggest a role of this novel biomarker as a marker of severity and prognosis in patients with HF.
- cystatin C
- heart failure
- renal function
- ventricular assist device
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine