In the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, the incidence of AIDS-defining malignancies (ADMs) has declined significantly. On the other hand, the incidence of other malignancies not known to be associated with immunosuppression (non-ADMs) has not changed and remains significantly higher than in the general population. Some recent controlled studies even suggest that the incidence of selected non-ADMs has increased in the HAART era. These trends warrant a high index of suspicion for malignancies among HIV care providers and a renewed focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the increased rates. Potential explanations for the higher non-ADM rates include longer survival of patients with HIV on HAART, with only partial immune recovery achieved in most patients; high incidence of human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and hepatitis C virus coinfection in patients with HIV infection; and potential oncogenicity of long-term HIV infection or of long-term HAART.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases