A decade ago, preterm infants were prophylactically intubated and mechanically ventilated starting in the delivery room; however, now the shift is toward maintaining even the smallest of neonates on noninvasive respiratory support. The resuscitation of very low gestational age neonates continues to push the boundaries of neonatal care, as the events that transpire during the golden minutes right after birth prove ever more important for determining long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the most important mode of noninvasive respiratory support for the preterm infant to establish and maintain functional residual capacity and decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch. However, the majority of extremely low gestational age infants require face mask positive pressure ventilation during initial stabilization before receiving CPAP. Effectiveness of face mask positive pressure ventilation depends on the ability to detect and overcome mask leak and airway obstruction. In this review, the current evidence on devices and techniques of noninvasive ventilation in the delivery room are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health