Background: The penetrance of leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations is incomplete and may be influenced by environmental and/or other genetic factors. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to reduce inflammation and may lower Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, but their role in LRRK2-associated PD is unknown. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of regular NSAID use and LRRK2-associated PD. Methods: Symptomatic ("LRRK2-PD") and asymptomatic ("LRRK2-non-PD") participants with LRRK2 G2019S, R1441X, or I2020T variants (definitely pathogenic variant carriers) or G2385R or R1628P variants (risk variant carriers) from 2 international cohorts provided information on regular ibuprofen and/or aspirin use (≥2 pills/week for ≥6 months) prior to the index date (diagnosis date for PD, interview date for non-PD). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between regular NSAID use and PD for any NSAID, separately for ibuprofen and aspirin in all carriers and separately in pathogenic and risk variant groups. Results: A total of 259 LRRK2-PD and 318 LRRK2-non-PD participants were enrolled. Regular NSAID use was associated with reduced odds of PD in the overall cohort (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21–0.57) and in both pathogenic and risk variant carriers (ORPathogenic, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21–0.67 and ORRiskVariant, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04–0.99). Similar associations were observed for ibuprofen and aspirin separately (ORIbuprofen, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07–0.50 and ORAspirin, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28–0.91). Conclusions: Regular NSAID use may be associated with reduced penetrance in LRRK2-associated PD. The LRRK2 protein is involved in inflammatory pathways and appears to be modulated by regular anti-inflammatory use. Longitudinal observational and interventional studies of NSAID exposure and LRRK2-PD are needed to confirm this association.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology