Normative data and psychometric properties of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the abbreviated version (CD-RISC2) among the general population in Hong Kong

Michael Y. Ni, Tom K. Li, Nancy X. Yu, Herbert Pang, Brandford H Y Chan, Gabriel M. Leung, Sunita M. Stewart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations


Purpose: To examine whether the two-item version (CD-RISC2) of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) has adequate internal consistency and construct validity, as well as significant correlation with the full scale, and to provide normative data for the CD-RISC and the CD-RISC2 in a Chinese general population in Hong Kong. Methods: In total, 10,997 randomly selected participants aged ≥20 years completed the Chinese version of the CD-RISC (including the 2 items of the CD-RISC2), the Patient Health Questionnaire, Family Harmony Scale, Family APGAR, and CAGE Questionnaire. Internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 were assessed. Results: Cronbach’s α for CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 0.97 and 0.79, respectively. CD-RISC2 was associated with the 25-item version of the CD-RISC (r = 0.88), depressive symptoms (rs = −0.18), family harmony (r = 0.20), family functioning (r = 0.27) and was not associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.05). The mean score for the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 59.99 (SD = 13.92) and 5.03 (SD = 1.37), respectively. Men, younger individuals, and those with higher education or higher household income reported higher resilience levels. Conclusions: The Chinese version of the CD-RISC2 was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure in assessing resilience among the general population in Hong Kong.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-116
Number of pages6
JournalQuality of Life Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016



  • Adults
  • CD-RISC2
  • Chinese
  • Community
  • Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale
  • Resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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