Objective: To provide normative and descriptive data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in a large, ethnically diverse sample. Methods: The MoCA was administered to 2,653 ethnically diverse subjects as part of a population-based study of cardiovascular disease (mean age 50.30 years, range 18-85; Caucasian 34%, African American 52%, Hispanic 11%, other 2%). Normative data were generated by age and education. Pearson correlations and analysis of variance were used to examine relationship to demographic variables. Frequency of missed items was also reviewed. Results: Total scores were lower than previously published normative data (mean 23.4, SD 4.0), with 66% falling below the suggested cutoff (<26) for impairment. Most frequently missed items included the cube drawing (59%), delayed free recall (56%; <4/5 words), sentence repetition (55%), placement of clock hands (43%), abstraction items (40%), and verbal fluency (38%; <11 words in 1 minute). Normative data stratified by age and education were derived. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need for population-based norms for the MoCA and use of caution when applying established cut scores, particularly given the high failure rate on certain items. Demographic factors must be considered when interpreting this measure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology