Molecular cloning of genomlc sequences altered in cancer cells Is believed to lead to the Identification of new genes involved in the initiation and progression of the malignant phenotype. DNA amplification is a frequent molecular alteration in tumor cells, and is a mode of proto-oncogene activation. The cytologic manifestation of this phenomenon is the appearance of chromosomal homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) or double minute bodies (DMs). The gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III is characterized by a large HSR on chromosome 11. In-gel renaturation analysis confirmed the amplification of DNA sequences in this cell line, yet none of 42 proto-oncogenes that we tested is amplified in KATO III DNA. We employed the phenol-enhanced reassociation technique (PERT) to isolate 21 random DNA fragments from the amplified domain, and used 6 of them to further clone some 150 kb from that genomic region. While in situ hybridization performed with some of these sequences indicated that in KATO III they are indeed amplified within the HSR on chromosome 11, somatic cell hybrid analysis and in situ hybridization to normal lymphocyte chromosomes showed that they are derived from chromosome 10, band q26. The same sequences were found to be amplified in another gastric carcinoma cell line, SNU-16, which contains DMs, but were not amplified in other 70 cell lines representing a wide variety of human neoplasms. One of these sequences was highly expressed in both KATO III and SNU-16. Thus, the cloned sequences supply a starting point for identification of novel genes which might be involved in the pathogenesis of gastric cancers, and are located in a relatively unexplored domain of the human genome.
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