Nanophthalmos is a rare condition defined by a small, structurally normal eye with resultant high hyperopia. While six genes have been implicated in this hereditary condition (MFRP, PRSS56, MYRF, TMEM98, CRB1,VMD2/BEST1), the relative contribution of these to nanophthalmos or to less severe high hyperopia (≥ + 5.50 spherical equivalent) has not been fully elucidated. We collected probands and families (n = 56) with high hyperopia or nanophthalmos (≤ 21.0 mm axial length). Of 53 families that passed quality control, plausible genetic diagnoses were identified in 10/53 (18.8%) by high-throughput panel or pooled exome sequencing. These include 1 TMEM98 family (1.9%), 5 MFRP families (9.4%), and 4 PRSS56 families (7.5%), with 4 additional families having single allelic hits in MFRP or PRSS56 (7.5%). A novel deleterious TMEM98 variant (NM_015544.3, c.602G>C, p.(Arg201Pro)) segregated with disease in 4 affected members of a family. Multiple novel missense and frameshift variants in MFRP and PRSS56 were identified. PRSS56 families were more likely to have choroidal folds than other solved families, while MFRP families were more likely to have retinal degeneration. Together, this study defines the prevalence of nanophthalmos gene variants in high hyperopia and nanophthalmos and indicates that a large fraction of cases remain outside of single gene coding sequences.
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