Nuclear genomes distinguish cryptic species suggested by their DNA barcodes and ecology

Daniel H. Janzen, John M. Burns, Qian Cong, Winnie Hallwachs, Tanya Dapkey, Ramya Manjunath, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Paul D.N. Hebert, Nick V. Grishin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

DNA sequencing brings another dimension to exploration of biodiversity, and large-scale mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I barcoding has exposed many potential new cryptic species. Here, we add complete nuclear genome sequencing to DNA barcoding, ecological distribution, natural history, and subtleties of adult color pattern and size to show that a widespread neotropical skipper butterfly known as Udranomia kikkawai (Weeks) comprises three different species in Costa Rica. Full-length barcodes obtained from all three century-old Venezuelan syntypes of U. kikkawai show that it is a rainforest species occurring from Costa Rica to Brazil. The two new species are Udranomia sallydaleyae Burns, a dry forest denizen occurring from Costa Rica to Mexico, and Udranomia tomdaleyi Burns, which occupies the junction between the rainforest and dry forest and currently is known only from Costa Rica. Whereas the three species are cryptic, differing but slightly in appearance, their complete nuclear genomes totaling 15 million aligned positions reveal significant differences consistent with their 0.00065-Mbp (million base pair) mitochondrial barcodes and their ecological diversification. DNA barcoding of tropical insects reared by a massive inventory suggests that the presence of cryptic species is a widespread phenomenon and that further studies will substantially increase current estimates of insect species richness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8313-8318
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume114
Issue number31
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017

Keywords

  • ACG
  • Butterflies
  • Cryptic species
  • DNA barcoding
  • Genomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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