In response to inflammatory stimuli (e.g., endotoxin, proinflammatory cytokines) or oxidative stress, macrophages actively release a ubiquitous nuclear protein, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), to sustain an inflammatory response to infection or injury. In this study, we demonstrated mild heat shock (e.g., 42.5°C, 1 h), or enhanced expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 (by gene transfection) similarly rendered macrophages resistant to oxidative stress-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release. In response to oxidative stress, cytoplasmic Hsp72 translocated to the nucleus, where it interacted with nuclear proteins including HMGB1. Genetic deletion of the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or the peptide binding domain (PBD) from Hsp72 abolished oxidative stress-induced nuclear translocation of Hsp72-ΔNLS (but not Hsp72-ΔPBD), and prevented oxidative stress-induced Hsp72-ΔPBD-HMGB1 interaction in the nucleus. Furthermore, impairment of Hsp72-ΔNLS nuclear translocation, or Hsp72-ΔPBD-HMGB1 interaction in the nucleus, abrogated Hsp72-mediated suppression of HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release. Taken together, these experimental data support a novel role for nuclear Hsp72 as a negative regulator of oxidative stress-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and release.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy