The physicochemical factors involved in the formation of calcium-containing renal stones have been elucidated previously and some of the techniques for their quantitation are currently available. Accordingly, urinary activity product ratio (state of saturation), formation product ratio (limit of metastability), and crystal growth of brushite and calcium oxalate in 24-hr urine samples were compared between a control group without stones and stone-forming groups composed of patients with absorptive hypercalciuria, normocalciuric nephrolithiasis, and primary hyperparathyroidism. The activity product ratios of brushite and calcium oxalate were significantly elevated in stone-forming groups, largely because of the high renal excretion of calcium. The formation product ratios were reduced in most stone-forming groups, and the crystal growth was increased in the group with primary hyperparathyroidism. Thus, the physicochemical environment of urine in stone-forming groups was favorable to the nucleation of the nidi of brushite and calcium oxalate; in primary hyperparathyroidism, it may be conducive to the subsequent growth of nidi as well.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism