Packaging of DNA into chromatin adds complexity to the problem of regulation of gene expression. Nucleosomes affect the accessibility of transcription factors to occupy their binding sites in chromatin of eukaryotic cells. The disruption of nucleosome structure within the enhancer/promoter region of the integrated HTV-1 proviral genome is an instructive example of a chromatin remodeling process during transcriptional activation. To investigate the mechanism responsible for generating nuclease hypersensitive sites that exist in vivo in the promoter/enhancer region of the 5′LTR (long terminal repeat) of integrated HIV-1 we have utilized an in vitro chromatin assembly system with Xenopus oocyte extracts. Chromatin assembly in the presence of Sp1 and NFκB transcription factors induces DNase I hypersensitive sites on either side of their binding sites and positions the adjacent nucleosomes. This structure can also be formed in a factor-induced, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling process and closely resembles the in vivo chromatin structure. The DNase I hypersensitive sites that form within the HFV LTR are probably histone-free and remain after removal of transcription factors.
- Chromatin structure
- HIV-1 LTR
- Nucleosome reconstitution
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)