On mixed reality environments for minimally invasive therapy guidance: Systems architecture, successes and challenges in their implementation from laboratory to clinic

Cristian A. Linte, Katherine P. Davenport, Kevin Cleary, Craig A Peters, Kirby G. Vosburgh, Nassir Navab, Philip Eddie Edwards, Pierre Jannin, Terry M. Peters, David R. Holmes, Richard A. Robb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Scopus citations


Mixed reality environments for medical applications have been explored and developed over the past three decades in an effort to enhance the clinician's view of anatomy and facilitate the performance of minimally invasive procedures. These environments must faithfully represent the real surgical field and require seamless integration of pre- and intra-operative imaging, surgical instrument tracking, and display technology into a common framework centered around and registered to the patient. However, in spite of their reported benefits, few mixed reality environments have been successfully translated into clinical use. Several challenges that contribute to the difficulty in integrating such environments into clinical practice are presented here and discussed in terms of both technical and clinical limitations. This article should raise awareness among both developers and end-users toward facilitating a greater application of such environments in the surgical practice of the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-97
Number of pages15
JournalComputerized Medical Imaging and Graphics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2013



  • Augmented and mixed reality environments
  • Clinical translation
  • Image-guided interventions
  • Minimally invasive surgery and therapy
  • Virtual

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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