To determine the optimal dose of nicardipine (N) for maintenance of hemodynamic stability during the postinduction period, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study using four different doses of N administered after a standardized anesthetic induction sequence. A total of 106 patients were assigned to one of the following treatment groups: saline (control), N 0.5 mg (N0.5), N 1 mg (N1), N 2 mg (N2), and N 4 mg (N4). The study medication was administered intravenously (IV) in 2.5 mL of saline over 30 s 2 min before laryngoscopy. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at 1-min intervals for 15 min after tracheal intubation and for 5 min after skin incision. After intubation, the peak MAP values differed from the preinduction baseline MAP values by 21% ± 20%, 9% ± 12%, 1% ± 13%, -10% ± 12%, and -15% ± 13% (mean ± SD) in the control, N0.5, N1, N2, and N4 groups, respectively. However, the percent change in the pre- to postintubation MAP values (37% to 47%) was similar in all five groups. The highest postintubation HR values were recorded in the N4 group (P < 0.05 versus the other groups). However, the increases in MAP values after skin incision were the least in the N4 group. In conclusion, N1 IV, administered 2 min before laryngoscopy provides optimal control of arterial blood pressure during the postinduction period. Implications: Acute increases in blood pressure during anesthesia are undesirable in patients with preexisting cardiovascular diseases. This double-blind study found that the calcium-channel blocker, nicardipine, 1 mg intravenously 2 rain before tracheal intubation maintained hemodynamic stability during the intraoperative period.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine