Outcomes in adolescent and young adult patients (16 to 30 years) compared to younger patients treated for high-risk B-lymphoblastic leukemia: report from Children’s Oncology Group Study AALL0232

Michael J. Burke, Meenakshi Devidas, Zhiguo Chen, Wanda L. Salzer, Elizabeth A. Raetz, Karen R. Rabin, Nyla A. Heerema, Andrew J. Carroll, Julie M. Gastier-Foster, Michael J. Borowitz, Brent L. Wood, Naomi J. Winick, William L. Carroll, Stephen P. Hunger, Mignon L. Loh, Eric C. Larsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients 16–30 years old with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR-ALL) have inferior outcomes compared to younger HR-ALL patients. AALL0232 was a Phase 3 randomized Children’s Oncology Group trial for newly diagnosed HR B-ALL (1–30 years). Between 2004 and 2011, 3154 patients enrolled with 3040 eligible and evaluable for induction. AYA patients comprised 20% of patients (16–21 years, n = 551; 22–30 years, n = 46). 5-year event-free survival and overall survival was 65.4 ± 2.2% and 77.4 ± 2.0% for AYA patients compared to 78.1 ± 0.9% and 87.3 ± 0.7% for younger patients (p < 0.0001). Five-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 18.5 ± 1.7% for AYA patients and 13.5 ± 0.7% for younger patients (p = 0.006), largely due to increased marrow relapses (14.0 ± 1.5% versus 9.1 ± 0.6%; p < 0.0001). Additionally, induction failure rate was higher in AYA (7.2 ± 1.1% versus 3.5 ± 0.4%; p < 0.001) and post-induction remission deaths were significantly higher in AYA (5.7 ± 1.0% versus 2.4 ± 0.3%; p < 0.0001). AALL0232 enrolled the largest number of AYA B-ALL patients to date, demonstrating significantly inferior survival and greater rates of treatment-related toxicities compared to younger patients. Although treatment intensification has improved outcomes in younger patients, they have not been associated with the same degree of improvement for older patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalLeukemia
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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