Oxidative stress, Nrf2 and keratin up-regulation associate with Mallory-Denk body formation in mouse erythropoietic protoporphyria

Amika Singla, David S. Moons, Natasha T. Snider, Elizabeth R. Wagenmaker, V. Bernadene Jayasundera, M. Bishr Omary

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Abstract

Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) are hepatocyte inclusions commonly seen in steatohepatitis. They are induced in mice by feeding 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) for 12 weeks, which also causes porphyrin accumulation. Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is caused by mutations in ferrochelatase (fch), and a fraction of EPP patients develop liver disease that is phenocopied in Fech m1Pas mutant (fch/fch) mice, which have an inactivating fch mutation. fch/fch mice develop spontaneous MDBs, but the molecular factors involved in their formation and whether they relate to DDC-induced MDBs are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that fch mutation creates a molecular milieu that mimics experimental drug-induced MDBs. In 13- and 20-week-old fch/fch mice, serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and bile acids were increased. The 13-week-old fch/fch mice did not develop histologically evident MDBs but manifested biochemical alterations required for MDB formation, including increased transglutaminase-2 and keratin overexpression, with a greater keratin 8 (K8)-to-keratin 18 (K18) ratio, which are critical for drug-induced MDB formation. In 20-week-old fch/fch mice, spontaneous MDBs were readily detected histologically and biochemically. Short-term (3-week) DDC feeding markedly induced MDB formation in 20-week-old fch/fch mice. Under basal conditions, old fch/fch mice had significant alterations in mitochondrial oxidative-stress markers, including increased protein oxidation, decreased proteasomal activity, reduced adenosine triphosphate content, and Nrf2 (redox sensitive transcription factor) up-regulation. Nrf2 knockdown in HepG2 cells down-regulated K8, but not K18. Conclusion: Fch/fch mice develop age-associated spontaneous MDBs, with a marked propensity for rapid MDB formation upon exposure to DDC, and therefore provide a genetic model for MDB formation. Inclusion formation in the fch/fch mice involves oxidative stress which, together with Nrf2-mediated increase in K8, promotes MDB formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)322-331
Number of pages10
JournalHepatology
Volume56
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2012

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Mallory Bodies
Ferrochelatase
Erythropoietic Protoporphyria
Keratins
Oxidative Stress
Up-Regulation
Keratin-8
Keratin-18
Mutation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

Cite this

Oxidative stress, Nrf2 and keratin up-regulation associate with Mallory-Denk body formation in mouse erythropoietic protoporphyria. / Singla, Amika; Moons, David S.; Snider, Natasha T.; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Jayasundera, V. Bernadene; Omary, M. Bishr.

In: Hepatology, Vol. 56, No. 1, 01.07.2012, p. 322-331.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Singla, Amika ; Moons, David S. ; Snider, Natasha T. ; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R. ; Jayasundera, V. Bernadene ; Omary, M. Bishr. / Oxidative stress, Nrf2 and keratin up-regulation associate with Mallory-Denk body formation in mouse erythropoietic protoporphyria. In: Hepatology. 2012 ; Vol. 56, No. 1. pp. 322-331.
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abstract = "Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) are hepatocyte inclusions commonly seen in steatohepatitis. They are induced in mice by feeding 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) for 12 weeks, which also causes porphyrin accumulation. Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is caused by mutations in ferrochelatase (fch), and a fraction of EPP patients develop liver disease that is phenocopied in Fech m1Pas mutant (fch/fch) mice, which have an inactivating fch mutation. fch/fch mice develop spontaneous MDBs, but the molecular factors involved in their formation and whether they relate to DDC-induced MDBs are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that fch mutation creates a molecular milieu that mimics experimental drug-induced MDBs. In 13- and 20-week-old fch/fch mice, serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and bile acids were increased. The 13-week-old fch/fch mice did not develop histologically evident MDBs but manifested biochemical alterations required for MDB formation, including increased transglutaminase-2 and keratin overexpression, with a greater keratin 8 (K8)-to-keratin 18 (K18) ratio, which are critical for drug-induced MDB formation. In 20-week-old fch/fch mice, spontaneous MDBs were readily detected histologically and biochemically. Short-term (3-week) DDC feeding markedly induced MDB formation in 20-week-old fch/fch mice. Under basal conditions, old fch/fch mice had significant alterations in mitochondrial oxidative-stress markers, including increased protein oxidation, decreased proteasomal activity, reduced adenosine triphosphate content, and Nrf2 (redox sensitive transcription factor) up-regulation. Nrf2 knockdown in HepG2 cells down-regulated K8, but not K18. Conclusion: Fch/fch mice develop age-associated spontaneous MDBs, with a marked propensity for rapid MDB formation upon exposure to DDC, and therefore provide a genetic model for MDB formation. Inclusion formation in the fch/fch mice involves oxidative stress which, together with Nrf2-mediated increase in K8, promotes MDB formation.",
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AU - Singla, Amika

AU - Moons, David S.

AU - Snider, Natasha T.

AU - Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.

AU - Jayasundera, V. Bernadene

AU - Omary, M. Bishr

PY - 2012/7/1

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N2 - Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) are hepatocyte inclusions commonly seen in steatohepatitis. They are induced in mice by feeding 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) for 12 weeks, which also causes porphyrin accumulation. Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is caused by mutations in ferrochelatase (fch), and a fraction of EPP patients develop liver disease that is phenocopied in Fech m1Pas mutant (fch/fch) mice, which have an inactivating fch mutation. fch/fch mice develop spontaneous MDBs, but the molecular factors involved in their formation and whether they relate to DDC-induced MDBs are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that fch mutation creates a molecular milieu that mimics experimental drug-induced MDBs. In 13- and 20-week-old fch/fch mice, serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and bile acids were increased. The 13-week-old fch/fch mice did not develop histologically evident MDBs but manifested biochemical alterations required for MDB formation, including increased transglutaminase-2 and keratin overexpression, with a greater keratin 8 (K8)-to-keratin 18 (K18) ratio, which are critical for drug-induced MDB formation. In 20-week-old fch/fch mice, spontaneous MDBs were readily detected histologically and biochemically. Short-term (3-week) DDC feeding markedly induced MDB formation in 20-week-old fch/fch mice. Under basal conditions, old fch/fch mice had significant alterations in mitochondrial oxidative-stress markers, including increased protein oxidation, decreased proteasomal activity, reduced adenosine triphosphate content, and Nrf2 (redox sensitive transcription factor) up-regulation. Nrf2 knockdown in HepG2 cells down-regulated K8, but not K18. Conclusion: Fch/fch mice develop age-associated spontaneous MDBs, with a marked propensity for rapid MDB formation upon exposure to DDC, and therefore provide a genetic model for MDB formation. Inclusion formation in the fch/fch mice involves oxidative stress which, together with Nrf2-mediated increase in K8, promotes MDB formation.

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