Oxygen monitoring is a topic of exhaustive research due to its central role in many biological processes, from energy metabolism to gene regulation. The ability to monitor in vivo the physiological distribution and the dynamics of oxygen from subcellular to macroscopic levels is a prerequisite to better understand the mechanisms associated with both normal and disease states (cancer, neurodegeneration, stroke, etc.). This chapter focuses on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based techniques to assess oxygenation in vivo. The first methodology uses injected fluorinated agents to provide quantitative pO2 measurements with high precision and suitable spatial and temporal resolution for many applications. The second method exploits changes in endogenous contrasts, i.e., deoxyhemoglobin and oxygen molecules through measurements of T2* and T1, in response to an intervention to qualitatively evaluate hypoxia and its potential modulation.