Pain predicts non-adherence to pap smear screening among middle-aged African American women

Cathrine Hoyo, Kimberly S H Yarnall, Celette Sugg Skinner, Patricia G. Moorman, Denethia Sellers, LaVerne Reid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Background. Middle-aged African American women have the highest incidence and mortality of invasive cervical cancer in the United States and the lowest adherence to pap smear screening. Methods. In 2001, we identified factors associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations using three focus group interviews and subsequently developed a questionnaire administered to 144 African American women aged 45 to 65 years. Results. The perception that the Pap test was painful was associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations (OR = 4.78; 95%CI: 1.67-13.7). Difficulty to pay for the office visit coupled with perceived pain was associated with a nearly sixfold increase in risk of non-adherence (OR = 5.8; 95%CI: 2.8-15.5). Previously identified barriers to screening including lower education and socioeconomic status, poor access to care, knowledge of and exposure to known risk factors of invasive cervical cancer, cancer fatalism, and perceived racism were not independently associated with non-adherence. Conclusions. These data suggest that, among middle-aged African American women, future interventions addressing pain during a Pap test will likely increase acceptability of and adherence to cervical cancer screening. Pain could be addressed either by providing information during the pap test and/or using smaller lubricated speculums.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)439-445
Number of pages7
JournalPreventive Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2005


  • African Americans
  • Barriers
  • Cervix neoplasms
  • Middle-aged
  • Pain
  • Pap test
  • Screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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