Pantothenic acid is a water soluble B vitamin (vitamin B5) that is not synthesized by animals but is widely available in the diet. Pantothenic acid is metabolized to two important cofactors for enzymes: coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein (ACP). Both cofactors contain a sulfhydryl group (–SH), which reacts with carboxylic acids to form thioesters. ACP has a central role in the synthesis of fatty acids. CoA forms thioesters with a very wide range of metabolic intermediates and has been estimated to be a cofactor for about 4% of all known enzymes. It is also involved with fatty acid synthesis but has broader functions in fatty acid oxidation, ketone body metabolism, oxidative metabolism of pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle, and in the metabolism of a wide variety of organic acids, including those in catabolic pathways of amino acid metabolism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Professions(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)