Para-aortic nodal metastases in cervical cancer: A blind spot in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system: Current diagnosis and management

Lindsay Hwang, April Bailey, Jayanthi Lea, Kevin Albuquerque

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

In cervical cancer, para-aortic nodal (PALN) metastases at presentation is a strong indicator of poor prognosis. Despite this, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system does not require evaluation of lymph node involvement and does not incorporate clinically detected PALN into the staging system. In the USA, despite screening, a significant number of women still present at an advanced stage often with nodal metastases. While the presence of PALN metastases often indicates occult systemic disease, it is possible with modern therapies to provide long-term control of disease in a percentage of patients. We review the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of PALN metastases in cervical cancer outlining advances in modern imaging and combined modality therapies (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-322
Number of pages14
JournalFuture Oncology
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Keywords

  • extended field radiation
  • locally advanced cervical cancer
  • para-aortic nodal metastases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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