Partial deletion of membrane-bound domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase eliminates sterol-enhanced degradation and prevents formation of crystalloid endoplasmic reticulum

H. Jingami, M. S. Brown, J. L. Goldstein, R. G. Anderson, K. L. Luskey

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Abstract

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a hydrophobic NH2-terminal domain that contains seven apparent membrane-spanning regions and a single N-linked carbohdrate chain. The catalytic domain, which includes the COOH-terminal two-thirds of the protein, extends into the cytoplasm. The enzyme is normally degraded with a rapid half-life (2 h), but when cells are depleted of cholesterol, its half-life is prolonged to 11 h. Addition of sterols accelerates degradation by fivefold. To explore the requirements for regulated degradation, we prepared expressible reductase cDNAs from which we either deleted two contiguous membrane-spanning regions (numbers 4 and 5) or abolished the single site for N-linked glycosylation. When expressed in hamster cells after transfection, both enzymes retained catalytic activity. The deletion-bearing enzyme continued to be degraded with a rapid half-life in the presence of sterols, but it no longer was stabilized when sterols were depleted. The glycosylation-minus enzyme was degraded at a normal rate and was stabilized normally by sterol deprivation. When cells were induced to overexpress the deletion-bearing enzyme, they did not incorporate it into neatly arranged crystalloid ER tubules, as occurred with the normal and carbohydrate-minus enzymes. Rather, the deletion-bearing enzyme was incorporated into hyper-trophied but disordered sheets of ER membrane. We conclude that the carbohydrate component of HMG CoA reductase is not required for proper subcellular localization or regulated degradation. In contrast, the native structure of the transmembrane component is required to form a normal crystalloid ER and to allow the enzyme to undergo regulated degradation by sterols.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1693-1704
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Cell Biology
Volume104
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1987

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Sterols
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Oxidoreductases
Membranes
Enzymes
Half-Life
Glycosylation
Carbohydrates
crystalloid solutions
glutaryl-coenzyme A
Cricetinae
Transfection
Catalytic Domain
Cytoplasm
Complementary DNA
Cholesterol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Partial deletion of membrane-bound domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase eliminates sterol-enhanced degradation and prevents formation of crystalloid endoplasmic reticulum",
abstract = "3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a hydrophobic NH2-terminal domain that contains seven apparent membrane-spanning regions and a single N-linked carbohdrate chain. The catalytic domain, which includes the COOH-terminal two-thirds of the protein, extends into the cytoplasm. The enzyme is normally degraded with a rapid half-life (2 h), but when cells are depleted of cholesterol, its half-life is prolonged to 11 h. Addition of sterols accelerates degradation by fivefold. To explore the requirements for regulated degradation, we prepared expressible reductase cDNAs from which we either deleted two contiguous membrane-spanning regions (numbers 4 and 5) or abolished the single site for N-linked glycosylation. When expressed in hamster cells after transfection, both enzymes retained catalytic activity. The deletion-bearing enzyme continued to be degraded with a rapid half-life in the presence of sterols, but it no longer was stabilized when sterols were depleted. The glycosylation-minus enzyme was degraded at a normal rate and was stabilized normally by sterol deprivation. When cells were induced to overexpress the deletion-bearing enzyme, they did not incorporate it into neatly arranged crystalloid ER tubules, as occurred with the normal and carbohydrate-minus enzymes. Rather, the deletion-bearing enzyme was incorporated into hyper-trophied but disordered sheets of ER membrane. We conclude that the carbohydrate component of HMG CoA reductase is not required for proper subcellular localization or regulated degradation. In contrast, the native structure of the transmembrane component is required to form a normal crystalloid ER and to allow the enzyme to undergo regulated degradation by sterols.",
author = "H. Jingami and Brown, {M. S.} and Goldstein, {J. L.} and Anderson, {R. G.} and Luskey, {K. L.}",
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T1 - Partial deletion of membrane-bound domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase eliminates sterol-enhanced degradation and prevents formation of crystalloid endoplasmic reticulum

AU - Jingami, H.

AU - Brown, M. S.

AU - Goldstein, J. L.

AU - Anderson, R. G.

AU - Luskey, K. L.

PY - 1987

Y1 - 1987

N2 - 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a hydrophobic NH2-terminal domain that contains seven apparent membrane-spanning regions and a single N-linked carbohdrate chain. The catalytic domain, which includes the COOH-terminal two-thirds of the protein, extends into the cytoplasm. The enzyme is normally degraded with a rapid half-life (2 h), but when cells are depleted of cholesterol, its half-life is prolonged to 11 h. Addition of sterols accelerates degradation by fivefold. To explore the requirements for regulated degradation, we prepared expressible reductase cDNAs from which we either deleted two contiguous membrane-spanning regions (numbers 4 and 5) or abolished the single site for N-linked glycosylation. When expressed in hamster cells after transfection, both enzymes retained catalytic activity. The deletion-bearing enzyme continued to be degraded with a rapid half-life in the presence of sterols, but it no longer was stabilized when sterols were depleted. The glycosylation-minus enzyme was degraded at a normal rate and was stabilized normally by sterol deprivation. When cells were induced to overexpress the deletion-bearing enzyme, they did not incorporate it into neatly arranged crystalloid ER tubules, as occurred with the normal and carbohydrate-minus enzymes. Rather, the deletion-bearing enzyme was incorporated into hyper-trophied but disordered sheets of ER membrane. We conclude that the carbohydrate component of HMG CoA reductase is not required for proper subcellular localization or regulated degradation. In contrast, the native structure of the transmembrane component is required to form a normal crystalloid ER and to allow the enzyme to undergo regulated degradation by sterols.

AB - 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a hydrophobic NH2-terminal domain that contains seven apparent membrane-spanning regions and a single N-linked carbohdrate chain. The catalytic domain, which includes the COOH-terminal two-thirds of the protein, extends into the cytoplasm. The enzyme is normally degraded with a rapid half-life (2 h), but when cells are depleted of cholesterol, its half-life is prolonged to 11 h. Addition of sterols accelerates degradation by fivefold. To explore the requirements for regulated degradation, we prepared expressible reductase cDNAs from which we either deleted two contiguous membrane-spanning regions (numbers 4 and 5) or abolished the single site for N-linked glycosylation. When expressed in hamster cells after transfection, both enzymes retained catalytic activity. The deletion-bearing enzyme continued to be degraded with a rapid half-life in the presence of sterols, but it no longer was stabilized when sterols were depleted. The glycosylation-minus enzyme was degraded at a normal rate and was stabilized normally by sterol deprivation. When cells were induced to overexpress the deletion-bearing enzyme, they did not incorporate it into neatly arranged crystalloid ER tubules, as occurred with the normal and carbohydrate-minus enzymes. Rather, the deletion-bearing enzyme was incorporated into hyper-trophied but disordered sheets of ER membrane. We conclude that the carbohydrate component of HMG CoA reductase is not required for proper subcellular localization or regulated degradation. In contrast, the native structure of the transmembrane component is required to form a normal crystalloid ER and to allow the enzyme to undergo regulated degradation by sterols.

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