Patients with cirrhosis who have coronary artery disease treated with cardiac stents have high rates of gastrointestinal bleeding, but no increased mortality

T. Krill, G. Brown, R. A. Weideman, D. J. Cipher, S. J. Spechler, E. Brilakis, L. A. Feagins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with stents require dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). For cirrhotics, who often have varices and coagulopathy, it is not clear if the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) should preclude use of DAPT. Aim: To compare GIB and mortality rates in cirrhotics with CAD treated medically or with stents. Methods: Using institutional databases, we identified patients with cirrhosis and CAD treated with stents or medical therapy between January 2000-September 2015. Primary outcomes were GIB and mortality. Results: We identified 148 cirrhotics with CAD; 68 received stents (cases), 80 were treated with medical therapy (controls). Cases and controls had similar demographics, comorbidities, MELD scores and clinical presentation; DAPT was used in 98.5% of cases vs 5% of controls. The incidence of GIB was significantly higher in cases than controls (22.1% vs 5% at 1 year, P=.003; 27.9% vs 5% at 2 years, P=.0002), whereas all-cause mortality was similar (20.6% vs 21.3%). No patient required surgery or angiography for GIB, and no known patients died due to GIB. Multivariate analysis revealed use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was highly protective against GIB (OR=0.26, 95%CI=0.08-0.79). Conclusions: CAD treatment with stents in our cirrhotics was associated with a significantly increased risk of GIB, but no adverse effects on survival. Although it remains unclear whether the cardiovascular benefits of stents outweigh the GIB risk, our findings suggest that DAPT should not be withheld from stented cirrhotics for fear of GIB. Moreover, the use of a PPI should be strongly considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-192
Number of pages10
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume46
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

Fingerprint

Stents
Coronary Artery Disease
Fibrosis
Hemorrhage
Mortality
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Therapeutics
Varicose Veins
Fear
Comorbidity
Angiography
Multivariate Analysis
Demography
Databases
Survival
Incidence

Keywords

  • aspirin
  • cirrhosis
  • gastrointestinal haemorrhage
  • thienopyridine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

@article{5528fa369c384844922aad9c9a6cc02c,
title = "Patients with cirrhosis who have coronary artery disease treated with cardiac stents have high rates of gastrointestinal bleeding, but no increased mortality",
abstract = "Background: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with stents require dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). For cirrhotics, who often have varices and coagulopathy, it is not clear if the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) should preclude use of DAPT. Aim: To compare GIB and mortality rates in cirrhotics with CAD treated medically or with stents. Methods: Using institutional databases, we identified patients with cirrhosis and CAD treated with stents or medical therapy between January 2000-September 2015. Primary outcomes were GIB and mortality. Results: We identified 148 cirrhotics with CAD; 68 received stents (cases), 80 were treated with medical therapy (controls). Cases and controls had similar demographics, comorbidities, MELD scores and clinical presentation; DAPT was used in 98.5{\%} of cases vs 5{\%} of controls. The incidence of GIB was significantly higher in cases than controls (22.1{\%} vs 5{\%} at 1 year, P=.003; 27.9{\%} vs 5{\%} at 2 years, P=.0002), whereas all-cause mortality was similar (20.6{\%} vs 21.3{\%}). No patient required surgery or angiography for GIB, and no known patients died due to GIB. Multivariate analysis revealed use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was highly protective against GIB (OR=0.26, 95{\%}CI=0.08-0.79). Conclusions: CAD treatment with stents in our cirrhotics was associated with a significantly increased risk of GIB, but no adverse effects on survival. Although it remains unclear whether the cardiovascular benefits of stents outweigh the GIB risk, our findings suggest that DAPT should not be withheld from stented cirrhotics for fear of GIB. Moreover, the use of a PPI should be strongly considered.",
keywords = "aspirin, cirrhosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, thienopyridine",
author = "T. Krill and G. Brown and Weideman, {R. A.} and Cipher, {D. J.} and Spechler, {S. J.} and E. Brilakis and Feagins, {L. A.}",
year = "2017",
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volume = "46",
pages = "183--192",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Patients with cirrhosis who have coronary artery disease treated with cardiac stents have high rates of gastrointestinal bleeding, but no increased mortality

AU - Krill, T.

AU - Brown, G.

AU - Weideman, R. A.

AU - Cipher, D. J.

AU - Spechler, S. J.

AU - Brilakis, E.

AU - Feagins, L. A.

PY - 2017/7/1

Y1 - 2017/7/1

N2 - Background: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with stents require dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). For cirrhotics, who often have varices and coagulopathy, it is not clear if the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) should preclude use of DAPT. Aim: To compare GIB and mortality rates in cirrhotics with CAD treated medically or with stents. Methods: Using institutional databases, we identified patients with cirrhosis and CAD treated with stents or medical therapy between January 2000-September 2015. Primary outcomes were GIB and mortality. Results: We identified 148 cirrhotics with CAD; 68 received stents (cases), 80 were treated with medical therapy (controls). Cases and controls had similar demographics, comorbidities, MELD scores and clinical presentation; DAPT was used in 98.5% of cases vs 5% of controls. The incidence of GIB was significantly higher in cases than controls (22.1% vs 5% at 1 year, P=.003; 27.9% vs 5% at 2 years, P=.0002), whereas all-cause mortality was similar (20.6% vs 21.3%). No patient required surgery or angiography for GIB, and no known patients died due to GIB. Multivariate analysis revealed use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was highly protective against GIB (OR=0.26, 95%CI=0.08-0.79). Conclusions: CAD treatment with stents in our cirrhotics was associated with a significantly increased risk of GIB, but no adverse effects on survival. Although it remains unclear whether the cardiovascular benefits of stents outweigh the GIB risk, our findings suggest that DAPT should not be withheld from stented cirrhotics for fear of GIB. Moreover, the use of a PPI should be strongly considered.

AB - Background: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with stents require dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). For cirrhotics, who often have varices and coagulopathy, it is not clear if the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) should preclude use of DAPT. Aim: To compare GIB and mortality rates in cirrhotics with CAD treated medically or with stents. Methods: Using institutional databases, we identified patients with cirrhosis and CAD treated with stents or medical therapy between January 2000-September 2015. Primary outcomes were GIB and mortality. Results: We identified 148 cirrhotics with CAD; 68 received stents (cases), 80 were treated with medical therapy (controls). Cases and controls had similar demographics, comorbidities, MELD scores and clinical presentation; DAPT was used in 98.5% of cases vs 5% of controls. The incidence of GIB was significantly higher in cases than controls (22.1% vs 5% at 1 year, P=.003; 27.9% vs 5% at 2 years, P=.0002), whereas all-cause mortality was similar (20.6% vs 21.3%). No patient required surgery or angiography for GIB, and no known patients died due to GIB. Multivariate analysis revealed use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was highly protective against GIB (OR=0.26, 95%CI=0.08-0.79). Conclusions: CAD treatment with stents in our cirrhotics was associated with a significantly increased risk of GIB, but no adverse effects on survival. Although it remains unclear whether the cardiovascular benefits of stents outweigh the GIB risk, our findings suggest that DAPT should not be withheld from stented cirrhotics for fear of GIB. Moreover, the use of a PPI should be strongly considered.

KW - aspirin

KW - cirrhosis

KW - gastrointestinal haemorrhage

KW - thienopyridine

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U2 - 10.1111/apt.14121

DO - 10.1111/apt.14121

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C2 - 28488370

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