Background: Optimal glucose-lowering strategies in patients with both heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are not well defined, particularly as novel medication classes emerge.We sought to evaluate current patterns of glucose-lowering medication use in adults with T2D with and without HF. Methods: The DCR is a US-based outpatient registry of adults with diabetes; currently includes 3074 providers in 203 practices. We used hierarchical, modified Poisson regression models to examine the relationship between concomitant HF with use of each glucose-lowering medication class, adjusting for other factors that could impact selection of one medication class over another: age, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary artery disease (CAD), number of glucose-lowering medications, and insurance. Results: Among 456,106 adults with T2D, 125,161 (27%) had a diagnosis of HF (30% HFrEF, 15%HFmrEF, 55% HFpEF). Patients with T2D and HF were more likely to be older and male, and to have CAD, atrial fibrillation, and CKD. In the multivariable models, HF was associated with a greater use of insulin (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.36–1.42) and lower use of thiazolidinediones (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.74–0.83), SGLT2 inhibitors (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.79–0.89), and metformin (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.82–0.86). Among the subgroup of patients with HF, thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and SGLT2 inhibitors were used even less often in patients with lower ejection fraction, indicating that both the diagnosis of clinical HF and ejection fraction may influence the choice of glucose-lowering medications. Conclusion: In a large US-based outpatient registry, we found that a quarter of adults with T2D had a diagnosis of HF, which was predominantly HFpEF. Although certain T2D medication use in patients with HF appeared consistent with evidence (less use of thiazolidinediones), others appeared contrary to evidence (less use of metformin and SGLT2 inhibitors).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine