Patterns of locoregional failure in stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy

Shalini Garg, Benjamin T. Gielda, Krystyna Kiel, Julius V. Turian, Mary Jo Fidler, Marta Batus, Philip Bonomi, David J. Sher

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Abstract

Purpose: Chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is the core treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), but potential toxicities limit radiation therapy dose. These toxicities, plus the advent of increasingly conformal radiation therapy, have prioritized target definition and the use of involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT). Published data largely focus on regional rather than local failure patterns. We report our pattern-of-failure experience treating patients with LA-NSCLC with definitive CRT, focusing on both local and regional recurrences with detailed dosimetric analyses of failure location. Methods and materials: Patients treated between December 2004-2010 were included. Imaging scans from date of failure were fused with the RT-planning CT scan, and recurrent nodes were contoured to determine if the recurrence was in a previously irradiated region, defined as involved nodal recurrence (INR) versus elective nodal recurrence (ENR). Local failures were contoured and identified as in-field, marginal, or out-of-field based on dose received. Actuarial overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated, and the cumulative incidences of local, regional, locoregional, and distant recurrence (CILR, CIRR, CILRR, CIDR) were determined with death as a competing risk. Results: One hundred five patients were included with a median survival of 21.8 months. The 3-year OS and PFS were 36% and 22%, respectively. The 3 year CILRR, CILR, CIRR, CIDR were 41%, 38%, 40%, and 58%, respectively. Thirty patients failed regionally, but only 7 patients developed an ENR with no concurrent local failure or INR, and only 1 of these patients did not develop distant metastases within 1 month of recurrence. A total of 21 patients (20%) developed an ENR with or without other areas of recurrence. Conclusions: Elective regional recurrences rarely occurred as the sole site of failure, despite the use of IFRT. Moreover, the pattern of local failure was entirely in-field. These data strongly support field design focusing on gross nodal and primary disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)342-348
Number of pages7
JournalPractical Radiation Oncology
Volume4
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2014

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Medicine(all)

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