Pediatric cortical dysplasia: Correlations between neuroimaging, electrophysiology and location of cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells and glutamate/GABA synaptic circuits

C. Cepeda, V. M. André, J. Flores-Hernández, O. K. Nguyen, N. Wu, G. J. Klapstein, S. Nguyen, S. Koh, H. V. Vinters, M. S. Levine, G. W. Mathern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Scopus citations

Abstract

Seizures in cortical dysplasia (CD) could be from cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells acting as epileptic 'pacemakers', or abnormal neurotransmission. This study examined these hypotheses using in vitro electrophysiological techniques to determine intrinsic membrane properties and spontaneous glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity for normal-pyramidal neurons, cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells from 67 neocortical sites originating from 43 CD patients (ages 0.2-14 years). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and electrocorticography graded cortical sample sites from least to worst CD abnormality. Results found that cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells were observed more frequently in areas of severe CD compared with mild or normal CD regions as assessed by FDG-PET/MRI. Cytomegalic neurons (but not balloon cells) correlated with the worst electrocorticography scores. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that cytomegalic and normal-pyramidal neurons displayed similar firing properties without intrinsic bursting. By contrast, balloon cells were electrically silent. Normal-pyramidal and cytomegalic neurons displayed decreased spontaneous glutamatergic synaptic activity in areas of severe FDG-PET/MRI abnormalities compared with normal regions, while GABAergic activity was unaltered. In CD, these findings indicate that cytomegalic neurons (but not balloon cells) might contribute to epileptogenesis, but are not likely to be 'pacemaker' cells capable of spontaneous paroxysmal depolarizations. Furthermore, there was more GABA relative to glutamate synaptic neurotransmission in areas of severe CD. Thus, in CD tissue alternate mechanisms of epileptogenesis should be considered, and we suggest that GABAergic synaptic circuits interacting with cytomegalic and normal-pyramidal neurons with immature receptor properties might contribute to seizure generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-76
Number of pages18
JournalDevelopmental Neuroscience
Volume27
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 25 2005

Keywords

  • Balloon cells
  • Cortical dysplasia
  • Cytomegalic neurons
  • Electrophysiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience

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    Cepeda, C., André, V. M., Flores-Hernández, J., Nguyen, O. K., Wu, N., Klapstein, G. J., Nguyen, S., Koh, S., Vinters, H. V., Levine, M. S., & Mathern, G. W. (2005). Pediatric cortical dysplasia: Correlations between neuroimaging, electrophysiology and location of cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells and glutamate/GABA synaptic circuits. Developmental Neuroscience, 27(1), 59-76. https://doi.org/10.1159/000084533