Thyroid cancer is an uncommon childhood malignancy that presents primarily in young children or adolescent females and may be related to radiation exposure or genetic predisposition. Gene alterations, such as RET mutation or RET/PTC rearrangement, are not uncommon. Recent studies have lead to an increased understanding of the role of these particular gene alterations in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of thyroid cancer. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for thyroid cancer followed by radioactive iodine when appropriate. In patients with MEN2, prophylactic thyroidectomy is recommended, although a delay in the initial diagnosis is common. With early aggressive treatment and long-term follow-up, these patients generally have excellent outcomes. Recent research suggests potential usefulness of novel therapies directed at oncogenic signaling pathways, modulators of growth, angiogenesis inhibitors, immunomodulators, and gene therapy.
- RET mutations
- Thyroid carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health