Three patients developed Paecilomyces lilacinus keratitis while being treated with topical corticosteroids and antibiotics. The first patient, a diabetic man, suffered superficial ocular trauma while being treated for recurrent anterior uveitis related to an iris-fixated intraocular lens. The second patient developed keratitis while being treated for anterior segment inflammation associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. The third patient, a woman with chronic lymphoma in remission, was receiving topical antibiotics and corticosteroids for a corneal transplant performed one year previously. All three patients underwent penetrating keratoplasty after progression to perforation or failure of medical therapy. Two eyes (cases 1 and 2) eventually required enucleation. The fungal isolates demonstrated in vitro resistance to amphotericin and natamycin with greater sensitivity to imidazole derivatives. Thus, we recommend prompt and prolonged topical treatment with miconazole or other imidazole derivatives along with avoidance of penetrating keratoplasty and corticosteroids.
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