Percutaneous translumbar spinal cord compression injury in dogs from an angioplasty balloon: MR and histopathologic changes with balloon sizes and compression times

Phillip D. Purdy, Charles L. White, Donna L. Baer, William H. Frawley, R. Ross Reichard, G. Lee Pride, Christina Adams, Susan Miller, Christa L. Hladik, Zerrin Yetkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our previous model of spinal cord injury (SCI) included six dogs undergoing 30-minute compression with a balloon in the subarachnoid space. We determined whether various balloon sizes and compression times creates a gradation of injuries. METHODS: In 17 dogs (including our original six), angioplasty balloons 2, 4, or 7 mm in diameter (2 cm long) were inflated at T6 for 30, 120, or 240 minutes. T1- and T2-weighted, gadolinium-enhanced, and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) MR images were obtained at 1.5 T. Spinal canal occlusion (SCO) was measured as balloon area-spinal cord area. Hematoxylineosin and beta amyloid precursor protein staining were performed to demonstrate hemorrhage and axonal injury, respectively. Injuries were scored as mild, moderate, or severe. Trends were assessed with one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: SCO was 12.5-20% for 2-mm balloons, 28-56% for 4 mm, and 62-82% for 7 mm. No abnormalities were seen with SCO <30%. T1- and T2-weighted images had the poorest diagnostic performance; STIR images were best for predicting hemorrhage and axonal injury. Hemorrhage was demonstrated more frequently than was axonal injury. SCO (P < .0001) and hemorrhage (P = .002) significantly increased with balloon size. Longer inflation times tended to increase injuries for a given size, but differences were not significant. CONCLUSION: Compression injuries depended on the level of SCO. The compression times tested had less effect than the degree of compression. The value of 1.5-T MR imaging varied with the sequence and improved with contrast enhancement. STIR images showed SCIs not otherwise detected.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1435-1442
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology
Volume25
Issue number8
StatePublished - Sep 2004

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Spinal Cord Compression
Balloon Angioplasty
Spinal Cord Injuries
Spinal Canal
Dogs
Wounds and Injuries
Hemorrhage
Subarachnoid Space
Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
Economic Inflation
Gadolinium
Spinal Cord
Analysis of Variance
Staining and Labeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Cite this

Percutaneous translumbar spinal cord compression injury in dogs from an angioplasty balloon : MR and histopathologic changes with balloon sizes and compression times. / Purdy, Phillip D.; White, Charles L.; Baer, Donna L.; Frawley, William H.; Reichard, R. Ross; Pride, G. Lee; Adams, Christina; Miller, Susan; Hladik, Christa L.; Yetkin, Zerrin.

In: American Journal of Neuroradiology, Vol. 25, No. 8, 09.2004, p. 1435-1442.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Purdy, Phillip D. ; White, Charles L. ; Baer, Donna L. ; Frawley, William H. ; Reichard, R. Ross ; Pride, G. Lee ; Adams, Christina ; Miller, Susan ; Hladik, Christa L. ; Yetkin, Zerrin. / Percutaneous translumbar spinal cord compression injury in dogs from an angioplasty balloon : MR and histopathologic changes with balloon sizes and compression times. In: American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2004 ; Vol. 25, No. 8. pp. 1435-1442.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our previous model of spinal cord injury (SCI) included six dogs undergoing 30-minute compression with a balloon in the subarachnoid space. We determined whether various balloon sizes and compression times creates a gradation of injuries. METHODS: In 17 dogs (including our original six), angioplasty balloons 2, 4, or 7 mm in diameter (2 cm long) were inflated at T6 for 30, 120, or 240 minutes. T1- and T2-weighted, gadolinium-enhanced, and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) MR images were obtained at 1.5 T. Spinal canal occlusion (SCO) was measured as balloon area-spinal cord area. Hematoxylineosin and beta amyloid precursor protein staining were performed to demonstrate hemorrhage and axonal injury, respectively. Injuries were scored as mild, moderate, or severe. Trends were assessed with one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: SCO was 12.5-20{\%} for 2-mm balloons, 28-56{\%} for 4 mm, and 62-82{\%} for 7 mm. No abnormalities were seen with SCO <30{\%}. T1- and T2-weighted images had the poorest diagnostic performance; STIR images were best for predicting hemorrhage and axonal injury. Hemorrhage was demonstrated more frequently than was axonal injury. SCO (P < .0001) and hemorrhage (P = .002) significantly increased with balloon size. Longer inflation times tended to increase injuries for a given size, but differences were not significant. CONCLUSION: Compression injuries depended on the level of SCO. The compression times tested had less effect than the degree of compression. The value of 1.5-T MR imaging varied with the sequence and improved with contrast enhancement. STIR images showed SCIs not otherwise detected.",
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T1 - Percutaneous translumbar spinal cord compression injury in dogs from an angioplasty balloon

T2 - MR and histopathologic changes with balloon sizes and compression times

AU - Purdy, Phillip D.

AU - White, Charles L.

AU - Baer, Donna L.

AU - Frawley, William H.

AU - Reichard, R. Ross

AU - Pride, G. Lee

AU - Adams, Christina

AU - Miller, Susan

AU - Hladik, Christa L.

AU - Yetkin, Zerrin

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AB - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our previous model of spinal cord injury (SCI) included six dogs undergoing 30-minute compression with a balloon in the subarachnoid space. We determined whether various balloon sizes and compression times creates a gradation of injuries. METHODS: In 17 dogs (including our original six), angioplasty balloons 2, 4, or 7 mm in diameter (2 cm long) were inflated at T6 for 30, 120, or 240 minutes. T1- and T2-weighted, gadolinium-enhanced, and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) MR images were obtained at 1.5 T. Spinal canal occlusion (SCO) was measured as balloon area-spinal cord area. Hematoxylineosin and beta amyloid precursor protein staining were performed to demonstrate hemorrhage and axonal injury, respectively. Injuries were scored as mild, moderate, or severe. Trends were assessed with one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: SCO was 12.5-20% for 2-mm balloons, 28-56% for 4 mm, and 62-82% for 7 mm. No abnormalities were seen with SCO <30%. T1- and T2-weighted images had the poorest diagnostic performance; STIR images were best for predicting hemorrhage and axonal injury. Hemorrhage was demonstrated more frequently than was axonal injury. SCO (P < .0001) and hemorrhage (P = .002) significantly increased with balloon size. Longer inflation times tended to increase injuries for a given size, but differences were not significant. CONCLUSION: Compression injuries depended on the level of SCO. The compression times tested had less effect than the degree of compression. The value of 1.5-T MR imaging varied with the sequence and improved with contrast enhancement. STIR images showed SCIs not otherwise detected.

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