Background: Turner syndrome (TS) has a characteristic neurocognitive profile. Verbal abilities are, in general, normal; however, women with TS, as a group, have specific deficits in visual-spatial abilities, visual-perceptual abilities, motor function, nonverbal memory, executive function, and attentional abilities. Observed deficits could be caused by genetic or endocrine factors. Objective: To evaluate the specific cognitive deficits that appear to persist in adulthood, are not estrogen-responsive, and may be genetically determined. Methods: The cognitive performance of adult women with TS (n = 71) who were estrogen repleted was compared with verbal IQ- and socioeconomic status-matched female controls (n = 50). Sixty-one women with TS had ovarian failure and received estrogen replacement and 10 had preserved endogenous ovarian function and were not receiving estrogen replacement at the time of evaluation. Results: Similar to children and adolescents with TS, adults with TS have normal verbal IQ but have relative difficulty on measures of spatial/perceptual skills, visual-motor integration, affect recognition, visual memory, attention, and executive function despite estrogen replacement. These deficits are apparent in women with TS despite apparently adequate estrogen effect, either endogenous or by hormone replacement. Conclusion: The cognitive phenotypes of adults with TS, with or without ovarian failure, are similar, indicating that estrogen replacement does not have a major impact on the cognitive deficits of adults with TS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology